From 2007.igem.org

Introduction | Applications | Design | Modelling | Wet Lab | Proof of concept | Future Directions | References

Vanilla Flavour

Genes and Enzymes Involved in Caffeic Acid Biosynthesis in the Actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis. Berner M, et al, Journal of Bacteriology 188(7): 2666, (2006)

Gowri G, et al, Molecular cloning and expression of alfalfa S-adenosyl-L-methionine: caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme of lignin biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 97(1):7 (1991)

Downregulation of Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase in Transgenic Alfalfa Impacts on Lignin Structure and Implications for the Biosynthesis of G and S Lignin. Guo D, et al, Plant Cell. January; 13(1): 73 (2001)

Cloning and Characterization of the Ferulic Acid Catabolic Genes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. E Masai, et al, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 68(9): 4416–4424 (2002)

Vanillin production using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli under non-growing conditions. P Barghini, et al, Microbial Cell Factories, 6:13 (2007)

Characterization of a bacterial tyrosine ammonia lyase, a biosynthetic enzyme for the photoactive yellow Protein. JA Kyndt et al, FEBS Letters 512: 240-244 (2002)

Vanilla flavour: production by conventional and biotechnological routes. S Ramachandra Rao & GA Ravishankar, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80:289-304 (2000)

Two O-Methyltransferases Isolated from Flower Petals of Rosa chinensis var. spontanea Involved in Scent Biosynthesis. W Shuiqin, et al, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 96(2): 119-128 (2003)

Applied biocatalysis for the synthesis of natural flavour compounds – current industrial processes and future prospects. J Schrader, Biotechnology Letters, 26: 463–472 (2004)

Lemon Flavour

Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon): cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases. J Lucker, et al, Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 3160–3171 (2002)

Analysis of Lemon and Bergamot Essential Oils by HPLC with Microbore Columns. M Benincasa, et al, Chromatographia 30(5/6):271 (1990)

Citrus fruit flavour and aroma biosynthesis. L Sharon-Asa, The Plant Journal, 36:664 (2003)

Strawberry Flavour

Gain and Loss of Fruit Flavor Compounds Produced by Wild and Cultivated Strawberry Species. A Aharoni, et al, The Plant Cell, 16: 3110–3131 (2004)

Identification of the SAAT Gene Involved in Strawberry Flavor Biogenesis by Use of DNA Microarrays. A Aharoni, et al, The Plant Cell, 12: 647–661, (2000)

Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Strawberry Fruits and Foliage: 2H Labeling Studies. D Hampel, et al, J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 1473-1478 (2006)

Colour Production

Metabolic Engineering of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Y Yan, et al, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 71(7): 3617–3623 (2005)

Diversity of Carotenoid Synthesis Gene Clusters from Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Strains. N Sedkova, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 71(12): 8141–8146 (2005)

Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway by Functional Analysis of Gene Products Expressed in Escherichia coli. N Misawa, et al, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 172(12): 6704-6712 (1990)

Transformation into Lactobacillus

Optimization of technical conditions for the transformation of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains by electroporation. YH Kim, et al, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99: 167–174 (2005)


Lycopene and prostate cancer. Ansari MS & Ansari S, Future Oncology, 1(3):425-30 (2005)

Role of Antioxidant Lycopene in Cancer and Heart Disease. A. Venket Rao, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 19(5): 563-569 (2000)

Gastrointestinal tract flora

Guarner, F. Enteric Flora in health and disease, Digestion 2006; 73, pp 5-12

Tannock, W. A Special Fondness for Lactobacilli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 June; 70(6): 3189–3194

Alina Guimarães Quintanilha, Bruno Zilberstein, Manoel A A Santos, Denis Pajecki, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux Moura, Paulo Roberto Arruda Alves, Fauze Maluf-Filho, Ivan Cecconello. A novel sampling method for the investigation of gut. Microbiota. World J Gastroenterol 2007 August 7; 13(29): 3990-3995

PUMA2--grid-based high-throughput analysis of genomes and metabolic pathways. Maltsev N, Glass E, Sulakhe D, Rodriguez A, Syed MH, Bompada T, Zhang Y, D'Souza M. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 Jan 1;34(Database issue):D369-72.

Ganzle MG, Vermeulen N, Vogel RF. Carbohydrate, peptide and lipid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough. Food Microbiol. 2007 Apr;24(2):128-38.

National Centre for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Pearson Int ed, Silverthorn, 2007, Human Physiology, Ch21

Pocock – Human physiology, the basis of medicine. 1999

Guyton, Textbook of medical physiology, 2006

van Spronsen FJ, van Rijn M, Bekhof J, Koch R, Smit PG. Phenylketonuria: tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):153-7.

KEGG Metabolic reconstruction maps, http://compbio.mcs.anl.gov/puma2/cgi-bin/met_recon.cgi?pwy_db=kegg

Koyanagi, T., Katayama, T., Suzuki, H. And Kumagai, H. Identification of the LIV-I/LS System as the Third Phenylalanine Transporter in Escherichia coli K-12. Journal of Bacteriology, January 2004, p. 343-350

Nicoline Vermeulen, Michael G. G nzle, and Rudi F. Vogel. Influence of Peptide Supply and Cosubstrates on Phenylalanine Metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T and Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.468. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (11), 3832 -3839, 2006.

Berger V, Larondelle Y, Trouet A, Schneider YJ. Transport mechanisms of the large neutral amino acid L-phenylalanine in the human intestinal epithelial caco-2 cell line. J Nutr. 2000 Nov;130(11):2780-8.


Production of Plant-Specific Flavanones by Escherichia coli Containing an Artificial Gene Cluster. EI Hwang, et al, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 69(5): 2699–2706 (2003)

Differential proteome analysis of selected lactic acid bacteria, stress response and database construction. Oliver Drews (2004)

On the puzzling arrangement of the asymmetric MalT-binding sites in the MalT-dependent promoters. O Danot, & O Raibaud, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90: 10999-11003 (1993)

Maltose/Maltodextrin System of Escherichia coli: Transport, Metabolism, and Regulation. W Boos & H Shuman, MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY REVIEWS, 62(1): 204–229 (1998)

Construction of a combined physical and genetic map of the chromosome of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and characterization of the rRNA operons. Youssef G, et al, Microbiology 151: 875–892 (2005)

Cloning, Phenotypic Expression, and DNA Sequence of the Gene for Lactacin F, an Antimicrobial Peptide produced by Lactobacillus spp. PM, Muriana, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 173(5): 1779-1788 (1991)

Analysis of promoter sequences from Lactobacillus and Lactococcus and their activity in several Lactobacillus species. A McCracken, et al, Arch Microbiol, 173 :383–389 (2000)

Introduction | Applications | Design | Modelling | Wet Lab | Proof of concept | Future Directions | References