# USTC/Repressor Evolution on Plates

(Difference between revisions)
 Revision as of 14:47, 22 October 2007 (view source)← Older edit Revision as of 14:49, 22 October 2007 (view source)Newer edit → Line 74: Line 74: === Repression Matrix === === Repression Matrix === - [[Image:USTC_RepressionMatrix.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Figure 7''' Repression Metrix:The repression matrix reveals the binding affinity of different repressor candidates with various specific promoters by different colors. The deeper the red will be, the higher the repression will appear. While the deeper the blue is the weaker the repression will show up]][[Image:USTC_RepressionMatrix-cutline.jpg|thumb|right]] + [[Image:USTC_RepressionMatrix.png|thumb|center|600px|'''Figure 7''' Repression Metrix:The repression matrix reveals the binding affinity of different repressor candidates with various specific promoters by different colors. The deeper the red will be, the higher the repression will appear. While the deeper the blue is the weaker the repression will show up]] === Orthologal Repression Matrix === === Orthologal Repression Matrix === - [[Image:USTC_OrthologalRepressionMatrix.png|thumb|center|300px|'''Figure 8''' Orthologal Repression Metrix]] + [[Image:USTC_OrthologalRepressionMatrix.png|thumb|center|300px|'''Figure 8''' Orthologal Repression Metrix]][[Image:USTC_RepressionMatrix-cutline.jpg|thumb|right|200px]] == References == == References ==

## Wires in Bio-logic Circuit

In electronic circuit, metal conductor such as copper is used as wires widely. But in a cell, most of the things are diffusive, so it is a difficult problem to limit a signal in a specific signal channel. High-specific regulator-operator pairs can be used as "copper wires" in bio-logic circuit. It means, repressor or activator transmit a particular signal from the upstream output port to the downstream input port, without interference between each other, like carrier wave in FM radio.

### Why to Design Artificial High-Specific Repressor-Operator Pairs

We have been attempting to construct several artificial high-specific repressor-operator pairs to serve as the connecting wires of our system, based on the knowledge of LacR and its binding site, and by means of directed evolution and computational protein design. We decide that they should be newly designed for several reasons,

1. The number of natural regulators well studied is limited.
2. Natural regulators do have some disadvantages.
• For example, it is well known that there are dozens of downstream regulatory sites of CRP in E.Coli, and if we abuse the CRP, some other natural pathways in the host bacterial will probably be interrupted.
• There may be several unknown sites to be bound with the selected native activators, and we might get unexpected results in such situations.
3. This artificial repressor family hold the same property for our cis-acting logic promoters, such as dimerization ad tetramerization.
Figure 1 Comics: All we need are the specific artificial 'repressor fish' that can definitely bite the specific 'operator hook' exclusively

## Start: Lac repressor

Figure 2 Solution structure of a dimer of Lac repressor DNA-binding domain complexed to its natrual operator O1 (From RCSB)

The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein which inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose in bacteria. It is active in the absence of lactose, ensuring that the bacterium only invests energy in the production of machinery necessary for the uptake and metabolism of lactose when lactose is present. When lactose becomes available, it is converted into allolactose, which inhibits the lac repressor's DNA binding ability.

The lac repressor protein has three distinct regions:

• a core region (which binds allolactose)
• a tetramerization region (which joins four monomers in an alpha-helix bundle)
• a DNA-binding region (in which two LacI proteins bind a single operator site)

The lac repressor occurs as a tetramer (four identical subunits bound together). This can be viewed as two dimers, with each dimer being able to bind to a single lac operator. The two subunits each bind to a slightly separated (major groove) region of the operator. The promoter is slightly covered by the lac repressor so RNAP cannot bind to and transcribe the operon.

The DNA binding region consists of a helix-turn-helix structural motif.

## Selection of operator sequence

By means of bioinformatics we can select a DNA sequence that has never appeared in the genome of E.Coli, and let the regulator bind to the sequence with quite high specificity,. Therefore, we will not have to worry about the regulator’s interrupting the normal functioning of the host genome (A tiny exception: the host strain should not contain lacI and lac promoter, such as Top10).

```   O11 aattgtgagcgctcacaatt
O22 aattgtaagcgcttacaatt
O33 aattgtaaacgtttacaatt
O44 aattgtgaacgttcacaatt
O55 aattttgagcgctcaaaatt
O66 aattatgagcgctcataatt
O77 gacgactgtatacagtcgtc
```

## Directed Repressor Evolution

### Targeted Mutagenesis

Figure 3 The recognition region of Lac repressor of which the amino acid residues we will try to modify. This figure comes from 'Roberto Kopke Salinas, etc. ChemBioChem 2005, 6, 1628 – 1637

Figure 3 shows the recognition region of which the amino acid residues we will try to modify. With saturation mutagenesis, it is possible to create a library of mutatants containing all possible mutations at these positions. For the targeted sites are near to the beginning of the lacI gene, but beyond the range of one primer region, two steps of PCR are carried out to generate the random repressor family like Figure 4. Then the PCR production is purified and digested, loaded into the repressor-production plasmid to take the repression assay.

Figure 4 Random repressor family generation by PCR.

### Repression Assay

With the help of pUC-repressor and pZS*-reporter, the two plasmids shown in Figure 5, we will be able to accomplish the repression assay.

The first plasmid is in charge of repressor production, that is, expressing the repressor constitutively. The second plasmid is composed of two reporter genes, lacZ (alpha fragment) and gfp-AAV, respectively, and an upstream promoter that reflects the repression effect in the form of binding intensity. Once the repression exists, the promoter will lose its activity. Consequently, neither of the downstream lacZ or GFP-AAV reporter gene will work. By reading the blue/white colonies on a plate with naked eyes and the fluorescence intensity of GFP with a fluorescence microscope, we can finally get to know the repression effect, and can ratiocinate from it the binding affinity of the repressor-operator pair.

Figure 5 (a) Left: Plasmid pUC-repressor, a repressor-production plasmid. Right: Plasmid pZS*-reporter, a repression-reporter plasmid. If the repressor produced by pUC-repressor is able to repress the promoter on pZS*-reporter, neither the activity of beta-galactosidase nor the expression of GFP will be observed. (b) Scheme of the promoter on the pZS*-reporter. There are two repressor binding sites around the RNA polymerase binding site. If the designed repressor is able to bind the designed operator, the activity of the promoter will be repressed.

### Screening

First, pUC-repressor plasmid containing random repressor family members are transformed into Top10/pZS*-PO_target-lacZa. White colonies, in which repressors can repress the target promoter, are select from Blue/White Screening on top agar Luria-Bertani broth. The repression should be re-tested to eliminate the false positive samples by X-gal assay and PCR checking. The survivals will be quantificationally measured using ONPG assay or fluorescent assay.

Figure 6 (a) One of the Blue/White screening plates. The red-marked colony are a target. (b) One of the plates in the repression assay. The blue or light blue colonies show the repressor expressed in the strains cannot or can weakly binding to the specified operator sequence, and in contrast, the repressor produced in the white colonies can repress the specified promoter. (c) PCR checking for promoter and lacZ alpha fragment.

## Results

### Repression Matrix

Figure 7 Repression Metrix:The repression matrix reveals the binding affinity of different repressor candidates with various specific promoters by different colors. The deeper the red will be, the higher the repression will appear. While the deeper the blue is the weaker the repression will show up

### Orthologal Repression Matrix

Figure 8 Orthologal Repression Metrix